Often basements happen too crude. In such premises clothes, books and other subjects grow mouldy, metal subjects and the tool rust, kleenaja the furniture collapses, fire wood and peat become crude. However, there is a possibility with small expenses to make a basement dry, suitable for its use as warehouse and a premise for work. .
External walls of a cellar and the base frequently are in contact with a crude ground which also the cellar floor directly adjoins. Dampness of soil gets into walls and a floor, doing air indoors also crude. The syree soil, the syree a cellar.
To Avoid dampness in a cellar the internal covering of walls and a floor helps. On walls and on a floor fastens or the layer of a synthetic film or roofing felt is pasted. For protection of a film or roofing felt from damages at walls the covering from a brick on an edge or from boards becomes, and the floor is cemented or gathers from boards. .
Preparation of surfaces . External walls between premises on which surface dampness acts, are levelled by a solution. Those sites of a surface which will become covered by a film, it is possible not to cover with a solution. It is necessary to stamp, cover an earthen or clay floor with a thin layer of sand or rubble. Then ps becomes covered thin (thickness about 2 sm) by a cement mortal layer in the ratio 1: 4 (cement: sand). Corners between walls and a floor are rounded.
film or roofing felt Packing . When the cement mortal will harden (after the lapse of 1-2 weeks), it is possible to begin isolation of walls and a floor. At first walls, and then a floor become covered by a film or roofing felt. On walls the film or roofing felt are located vertically, is similar to how wall-paper is imposed.
a Fig. 47. The device of isolation of a cellar.
The Length of pieces undertakes to equal height of a wall plus 15-20 see the Film or roofing felt it is possible to hang up on a wall freely, having attached it to a wall only under a ceiling. It is possible to attach nails or by means of temporarily beaten rejki. Roofing felt, that is a folder impregnated with slate pitch, it is possible to paste razogretoj pitch or bitumen, or cold kukersolnoj mastic.
a Fig. 48
Instead of roofing felt it is possible to use also antiseptirovannyj roofing material. It is not desirable to use usual roofing material, as eventually it decays.
When walls are covered, the film or roofing felt keep within on the levelled floor. Roofing felt can be pasted to a floor pitch or kukersolnoj mastic
Strips of a film both on walls, and on a floor should block each other approximately on 20 sm, and roofing felt - on 15 see On a film placed on a floor, the layer of a solution in the thickness of 4 sm (fig. 47) in the ratio 1:3 (cement keeps within: sand). After hardening, i.e. Approximately in two weeks closely to being on a wall izoljatsionnomu to a layer the bricklaying on an edge keeps within. .
And a floor it is possible to board Walls also (fig. 48). In this case on a film or roofing felt layer to a wall of 80-90 sm from each other are beaten horizontal bruski on distance. For this purpose in a wall between seams apertures in diameter about 2 sm into which wooden stoppers are hammered become. Places for apertures are marked according to the planned arrangement bruskov. The distance between apertures should be nearby 80 see But as the roofing felt strengthened on a wall hides the locations of stoppers, it is necessary to hammer temporarily before roofing felt strengthening into stoppers in seven-centimetric nails without hats so that they came out approximately on 5 see At use of a film of a stopper are visible through it and to designate nails their place it is not necessary. To bruskam are beaten stroganye or not stroganye boards 2-2,5 see in the thickness If the covering is horizontal, bruski are beaten vertically. .
The Film or roofing felt could be beaten and atop bruskov, but the last, being between a wall and isolation, can decay in due course. .
On the film or roofing felt layer placed on a floor, sexual logs of 5-6 sm with distance between them 70 keep within in the thickness see To logs are beaten nestroganye boards in the thickness 2,5 see At desire it is possible to use also stroganye or shpuntovannye boards. It is possible also in case of a covering of walls a brick to make a floor wooden, and at a covering of walls boards the floor can be cement. If to isolate a cellar how it is shown in drawings, it will be absolutely dry. It is necessary to mean, however, what not any cellar is expedient for draining. For example, premises in which are stored a potato, apples both other vegetables and fruit, should not be dry. At the same time, it is necessary to notice that in the specified ways it is not necessary to isolate those cellars in which water from time to time gathers. Their isolation - more difficult business.