the Principal cause of rotting of wood are mushrooms. The mushroom on wooden parts of structures is called as a house mushroom. If on wood disputes of a house mushroom get, they under favorable conditions start to develop. There are threads which developing, get into a tree. A texture of threads of a mushroom name mitseliem. On a wood surface there is a mushroom - a fruit body in which new disputes develop. .
Mitsely allocates enzymes which destroy wood. Nutrient for development of a house mushroom is cellulose. At destruction of cages of wood the friable weight often painted in brown colour is formed. In most cases under the influence of a mushroom wood eventually collapses on dark brown pieces which completely do not have mechanical durability. .
The Most dangerous to structures is house the mushroom (Serpula lacrymans). On a surface of the infected wood there are at first light yellow or pink textures similar to cotton wool mitselija - textures of mushroom threads. Eventually the fluffy fabric settles and forms the grey bound film on a wood surface. It with rough folds or with a porous rzhavo-brown surface formation also is a fruit body of a mushroom. The wood located under it becomes also brown and falls to pieces, which easily separate from healthy wood.
House the mushroom develops very quickly; in favorable conditions mitsely can get into wood on some centimetres a day. .
Often in buildings there is a so-called basement mushroom (Coniophora puteana or S sege-bella). Its fruit body more thin, than at a house mushroom, olive colour, but not with a porous folded surface. This mushroom develops slightly more slowly, than house a mushroom; it can develop also in wood on the bottom parts of trunks of trees and on stubs.
Often there is in buildings also white house a mushroom (Poria vaporaria), at which similar to cotton wool or a film mitsely, white round both reminding tubules cords and white (old - also brown) a fruit body similar to a film. The bottom part of a fruit body forms tubules with the angular disputes, reminding honeycombs. This mushroom amazes also not taken out business wood in wood.
On wood surfaces, long time were in the open air, it is possible to find thin kozhistye yellow-pink with whitish edges fruit bodies. It (Coriticum evelvens) rather harmless mushroom which develops extremely slowly. .
Oxygen access, temperature is necessary For development of a house mushroom from +5 to +40 °s, humidity of wood of 25-70%, air of 85-100%. Hence, for the prevention of development of a house mushroom it is necessary to create such position to exclude one of the resulted conditions. Then house the mushroom cannot develop. In practice it is the most easier to achieve the termination of access of oxygen. Started to develop a mushroom itself provides with water, since. It is allocated at chemical decomposition of cellulose.
Thus, if house the mushroom has already arisen, only drainage business will not manage.
It is very important, that wood used at building was dry (humidity to 18%) and in the further operation there were no conditions for its rotting. For prevention of excessive dampness there are many constructional measures. .
Wood is protected from dampness by the materials which are not passing water. Rolled materials (roofing felt, roofing material, pergamin) are such. Rolled materials it is possible to isolate walls of water tanks, the back party of bowls, places where pipes pass through walls, and also places of contact of wood with stone walls or with concrete.
It is essential, that to wooden designs there was an access of external air. For this purpose in the base apertures for airing, and in interfloor and garret overlappings - ventilating hatches become. On apertures lattices are established.
At a base laying it is necessary to clear the basis of a floor of a layer of the earth and whenever possible to fill with its dry sand. The bottom beams at erection of walls need to be isolated carefully. For this purpose on the base two layers of roofing felt or a film are pasted.
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