Dry pigments is melkoizmelchennye the multi-coloured powders which are mixing up with water, drying oil, varnishes, solvents and other liquids which are a part of paints, but not dissolved in them. Suitability of the substances applied as pigments for painting works, is defined by their such signs, as light resistance, atmosferostojkost, painting ability, masloemkost, ability to resist to chemical influences, jadovitost. The listed properties at different pigments vary in the big limits. By origin pigments divide on mineral, organic and metal, on ways of reception - on natural (natural) and artificial. .
Mineral pigments are salts and oxides of metals, organic - various organic connections at which structure, as a rule, there is a carbon. Metal pigments are melkoizmelchennye powders of nonferrous metals (aluminium, bronze). .
From natural pigments used in civil work it is possible to name a chalk, kaolin, graphite, ohru, a sienna, brown umbru. The majority of pigments - an inorganic and synthetic origin, them concern all white pigments (zinc and white lead, white litopon), the requirement in which in the industry is very great, and also from widespread grated paints: lead minium, red mars, red cinnabar, dark blue ultramarines, yellow strontium, zhzhenaja ohra, zhzhenaja a sienna, izvest etc. .
Unlike paint pigments are well dissolved in water, spirit, oil and are absorbed in a surface, leaving a structure uncovered. Use basically for transparent furnish of wooden surfaces. Most widespread of them - protravnoj dye which use for furnish of joiner's products. It is dissolved in water and, entering chemical reaction with the tannins which are in wood, changes thus the colour and paints surfaces. A brown shade receive, using nut morilku, a black shade - from nigrozina. At preparation of a water solution for 1 l of water add to 5 g a prograss powder. .
Pigments classify also on colouring. Distinguish colours: white, black, grey, red, yellow, green, dark blue, brown, lilac, orange. .
Napolniteli are mineral melkoizmelchennye insoluble powders (basically white colour) which add in structure of a paint for giving of special characteristics and reduction of the expense of a pigment. Napolniteli increase gluing properties of a pigment, mechanical durability of a film (at paints for a floor), water resistance, stability to atmospheric influences, shine. The most part napolnitelej are the various ground substances of rocks.