Stone and concrete surfaces for which alignment the layer of 5 mm and more is required, plaster. As well as shpaklevka, plaster consists of a hardener and softener. In quality napolnitelja sand is used. The normal thickness of a plaster coat - 2 sm, the maximum thickness of one layer can be to 5 see .
plaster Structures . More often for solution preparation it is used izvest which possesses properties as softener, and binding and very well seizes with stone and wooden surfaces. The limy solution hardens very slowly, reaching settlement durability decades. However, necessary durability turns out already right after drying, practically in 2-3 days after plaster drawing on a surface. .
The Limy solution plasters internal surfaces of buildings, it covers the most part of premises in old buildings. Under the influence of water plaster spoils. Durability of limy plaster the low. From blows it collapses, therefore the most part of the plastered surfaces demanding repair is a limy plaster.
If in a limy solution to add cement, the so-called difficult solution will turn out. It is much stronger limy and not so is subject to dampness action. Addition in a cement solution raises plaster cost, therefore at furnish of premises in new building it is not applied. However, by manufacture of repair work cement addition is desirable. Cement becomes strong in 28 days. Plaster with cement addition gets necessary durability in 2-3 days. .
For acceleration tverdenija a limy solution in dry premises in it add plaster. The mix of plaster and a limy solution prepares for once in such quantity that it could be used within 10-15 minutes.
It is possible to prepare the Solution also only from cement and sand. And cement in this case it is required much more, since. In this case it is also softener. The quantity of cement can be reduced considerably if as softener to use clay. Industrial production of the dry crushed clay considerably expands possibilities of its application in plaster solutions.
Though izvest its use in solutions inconveniently enough is the best softener. Izvest, necessary for solution preparation, should be preliminary extinguished. For this purpose it fill in with water and leave for some months. Though izvest it is considered ready, after fortnight clearing in the limy test there are yet not extinguished parts to exhaust, which even after sifting get to a solution. Parts outstanding to exhaust under the influence of the dampness which is in plaster and indoors, continue to be extinguished and inflate and can spoil completely within two-four weeks furnish. .
From these lacks it is free crushed in a powder not slaked izvest (bystrogasjashchajasja izvest). It is extinguished by water within 8-30 minutes, allocating heat and steam considerable quantity. From one kg bystrogasjashchejsja to exhaust 2-3,5 kgs of the limy test turn out. bystrogasjashchajasja izvest goes on sale in bags.
As at repair work speed tverdenija plasters is important enough, at furnish of internal premises in a solution it is necessary to add plaster, and external surfaces and crude premises - cement with lateksnym glue.
Plaster grows old and loses ability to shvatyvaniju approximately within a year. Time shvatyvanija plaster in difficult solutions with the big maintenance of plaster can be regulated addition of 2-5% of th solution of animal glue. In a cement mortal it is added lateksnyj glue to 20%от weights of cement. .
In the resulted structures the quantity of sand is specified for a plaster coat of a normal thickness. After plaster will harden and will dry out, it it is possible already smoothly shpaklevat. Furnish can be begun without waiting, while plaster will dry up. For this purpose it is necessary to prepare a finishing plaster mix with small crushed sand (diameter to 0,3 mm). The quantity of this sand in a solution should be three times less, than in the basic solution. It is necessary to put a finishing solution on the basic plaster right after its hardening, and a solution containing plaster - it is direct after drawing of the basic plaster on a surface. It is cement-lateksnyj a finishing solution it is put on the basic plaster coat approximately in an hour. Before drawing of a finishing solution it is necessary to moisten a surface of the basic plaster with water by means of a brush or a brush. If necessary last finishing solution becomes without sand and is put on a surface shpatelem.
sand Preparation . Sand for a solution should be pure without the earth and other impurity. For reception of good plaster sand it is necessary for sifting through a sieve with cells of 3-4 mm. At preparation of considerable quantities of a solution the inclined sieve on which sand throw shovels is applied. Thus small particles of sand, passing through a sieve, fall under it, and large inclusions roll down on a sieve downwards. At small amount of works the box sieve is applied.
Clearing to exhaust . Clearing to exhaust in the limy dough it is carried out in a corresponding box. At small amount clearing to exhaust it is possible to use wooden or metal bochkoj (fig. 25). At first a flank on one third it is filled not slaked izvestju on which at hashing to exhaust an oar slowly water is poured. Under the influence of water not slaked lumpy, so-called. komkovaja izvest starts to collapse, and its volume can increase to three times. The temperature simultaneously raises to exhaust and it "чръшярх=". When the most part to exhaust is extinguished, to a flank fill with water and leave to stand. Next morning the mix in a flank mixes up an oar or a shovel therefore all containing in to exhaust heavy inclusions, and also its not slaked particles settle flanks on a bottom. The received limy milk leave to stand on couple of weeks. During this time izvest it is extinguished definitively and limy milk in a flank turns to the limy dough smetanoobraznoj consistences. This dough undertakes from flanks a bucket or a shovel and mixes up with sand in so-called. A solution.
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