Cracks in plaster in the size more than 1 mm undress a knife till the width of 3-4 mm, the most thin treshchinki do not touch, they are filled at the first ogruntovke. If the surface smooth and preliminary oshpaklevana, is enough zadelki separate cracks and small hollows. Rough and earlier not oshpaklevannaja the surface requires in continuous shpaklevke. Ways shpaklevki are specified in fig. 10. .
Putties or the mixes used for filling of cracks and shpaklevki, consist from glutinous binding and napolnitelja. Only plaster unites properties binding and napolnitelja. Putty prepare taking into account a demanded thickness of a layer shpaklevki or liquid, or more densely; density of putty regulate water or chalk addition. SHpaklevkoj, prepared from a chalk, it is possible to fill cracks and hollows with depth to 4 mm. If it is necessary to cover a surface with a layer shpaklevki in the thickness more than 5 mm, in it add plaster or do a mix from shpaklevki PVD, cement and small sand (it already will be a plaster mix). For its drawing on a surface methods of plaster works are used. .
After clearing and washing oshpaklevannye places it is necessary ogruntovat, i.e. To cover glutinous binding shpaklevki (it is possible to ground and strongly diluted shpaklevkoj which is put on a surface by a brush) or oksolem. Ogruntovka oksolem - the most widespread, since. oksol, being absorbed in a surface, connects and strengthens also an old paint. To a surface, ogruitovannoj oksolem, paints and shpaklevki, prepared on the basis of various glues and binding stick. Ogruntovka binding, being in structure shpaklevki, provides its glutinosity mainly with that prevents vpityvanie waters from it in the surface basis. .
As a part of resulted more low shpaklevki it is impossible to define precisely a demanded quantity of water, since. At a different thickness of a layer shpaklevki its consistence is various, the quantity of water needs to be defined selection. Water is contained by the cretaceous paste prepared damp razmolom. For filling of cracks (at not continuous shpaklevanii) the elementary structure is plaster shpaklevka.
The Mix hardens within 15-30 minutes, on it it is necessary to prepare it in small quantities! Hardening slow down increase in the maintenance of glue (to 10%). Plaster shpaklevka, depending on the glue maintenance, hardens within 0,5-2 hours, then it is possible to ground and paint a surface.
Quick-drying is also lateksnaja shpaklevka. Most widespread of them - shpaklevka from PVA, is equivalent to it also shpaklevka from latex KCH. .
Most conveniently in work shpaklevka "ИыюЁр" which is available in a trading network. SHpaklevka is issued in packing. Contains lateksnyj glue and in quality napolnitelja a little a chalk. She liquid enough also allows to create shpaklevochnyj a layer in the thickness to 0,5 mm. It can be made more dense if to add a chalk or cement. Chalk addition keeps white colour shpaklevki that in turn excludes necessity for drawing of an additional paint coat. At addition of cement it reacts chemically with latex and hardens within 4 hours. Thus mechanical durability shpaklevki is equal to durability, vysokomarochnogo cement, and shvatyvanie with the basis in 4 times it is better, than pure cement. Application of white cement keeps light colour shpaklevki, grey cement does colour shpaklevki livid.
Structure lateksnoj shpaklevki :
- Lateksnyj glue (either lateksnaja paint EVA or EKCH 1 part)
- Cement (a mix of cement with plaster) 3-5 parts
- Sand (it is added at shpaklevanii by a layer more than 5 mm) 2-3 parts
Density shpaklevki is easy for regulating addition of a small amount of water. For continuous oshpaklevanija under glutinous paints it is necessary to apply oil shpaklevki, intended for oil paints (structures are given at works as oil paints).
The Surface, oshpaklevannuju under a glutinous paint, ogruntovyvajut a mylno-glutinous first coat. .
Before mixing soap cut a shaving. As glue it is possible to use preparation KMTS or kazeinovyj a powder (250. Appeared owing to razmokanija old shpaklevki and divorces it is necessary to impregnate stains preliminary oksolem. It is better to impregnate with drying oil or its substitute all painted surface.