Binding substances of water paints share on mineral and organic. The mineral concern: cement, izvest, liquid glass. Usual portlandtsement - the main binding substance used at concrete and stone works. It hardens under the influence of water. On durability cement is divided into marks 300, 400, 500, 600. At connection with water at +15 °s cement starts to harden not earlier, than in 45 minutes and definitively hardens within 10 hours. It should be considered at manufacturing of structures of paints for the future. For preparation of a paint it is enough to take cement of mark 300. Zelenovato-grey colouring ordinary portlandtsementa allows to produce only dark paints. .
White portlandtsement at pigment addition gives the chance to prepare mixes of any colour. Colour portlandtsement gives corresponding colouring.
Building izvest it is applied in dyes as binding substance, and also as a white pigment.
Liquid glass - on structure is silicate of sodium and silicate kalija. At painting works it is used only kalievoe liquid glass, since. natrievoe leaves on the painted surface a white deposit. At use in paints liquid glass is diluted with hot water to relative density of 1,15-1,18 g/sm 3 . .
Organic binding substances or glues are subdivided on animal, vegetative and synthetic. Animal glues are mezdrovyj, bone glue and casein.
Mezdrovyj and bone glue use at painting works with identical success. Both glues are issued by jellylike weight, tiles or granules, thus bone glue is more in the form of jellylike weight, and mezdrovyj - firm, dry. Both glues dilute with hot water.
Kazeinovyj glue is a water solution of a powder of casein. Casein receive by processing of cottage cheese by alkalis. It dissolve in water within an hour then glue is suitable to the use within 4-5 hours. In connection with izvestju gives an indelible paint which is used mainly for colouring of facades. Kazeinovym glue stick together wood, in particular, wood-fiber plates (it vlagoustojchiv, but is not waterproof). .
Vegetative glues is a starch, a flour and dekstrin.
Starch is a product of industrial processing of a potato, corn, a rye, wheat, rice, etc. At painting works potato starch of the lowest grade is used basically. In cold water it is not dissolved and for reception of paste it boil. Starch is necessary for stirring preliminary in cold water before reception of homogeneous weight to avoid formation of lumps. Gluing ability of starched paste is rather insignificant, therefore both in glutinous paints, and at a label of wall-paper, it should be used in a mix with animal glue. The best flour paste receive from a rye flour and a flour dust. It is necessary to boil it also, as well as starched paste. The initial material defitsiten and roads possesses good gluing properties, but.
Dekstriny are chemically processed krahmaly which are dissolved in cold water. Are similarly used with starch and a flour. .
Initial materials kazeinovogo glue and vegetative glues are foodstuff, therefore their manufacture and application ogranichenno. Synthetic materials made for the same purposes possess equal or even the best properties.
Synthetic organic glues are different solutions of polymers in water, spirit etc. In painting works apply karboksimetil cellulose KMTS and polivinilatsetatnyj glue PVAE and СКС-65 (butadien-styrene). Now in painting works are used lateksnye glues PVAE and СКС-65, a period of storage and which validity about 1 year more often. They possess good gluing properties. .
Vodoemulsionnye (lateksnye) paints prigotovlivajut on a basis lateksnogo glue. The paints made of glue PVAE, designate E-VA. Paint Э-ВА-17 is cold-resistant (others lateksnye paints it is necessary to store at pljusovoj to temperature). From glue СКС-65 produce lateksnuju paint E-KCH. This paint does not possess frost resistance. For manufacture pokrasochnyh works in premises lateksnye glues are used in a kind lateksnyh the paints, gluing which properties essentially do not differ from pure lateksnogo gluing.
Lateksnye of a paint and glues , dissolved in water to 50%, widely use in structures different shpaklevok, as a first coat under oil and enamel paints, for pasting of a film material etc.
On a level with the cores emulsionnymi paints E-VA and E-KCH make also emulsionnye paints E-AK and E-VS, the last - are cold-resistant.